【Gender and Cultural Translation with focus on Japanese】
Gender Problems with some focus on Japanese
-- How to teach this gendered language? --
Japanese and Gender Association
Panel (12:40 ): 呼称(koshoo) (Personal References) and Gender in Japanese—What is the problem?
"Gender " is omnipresent, but the concept is not clear. Thus, a global problematic of "Gender Trouble" (Judith Butler) and "Gender Free Trouble" (Ryoko Kimura) in Japan. The problem for the users of Japanese, which is often referred to as a highly gendered language, will be discussed by four speakers.
Katsue Reynolds (UHM･ハワイ大学)
Feminism is gone, and "gender" prospers
Katsue A Reynolds
It is known that Greek philosophers first used the terms masculine, feminine, and neuter to classify nouns, introducing the concept of grammatical gender and that in English the word came to be used more widely in the context of grammar. Now, it means many things. It could mean different categories of humans or different aspects of human life. For instance, the Vatican reportedly denounced the term "gender" as a code for homosexuality in an UN panel. I would like to bring attention to recent proposals by feminist thinkers as to how to look at what we used to discuss in terms of "gender" in order to keep alive feminism.
Gender in Japanese language teaching materials---
-From a perspective of 'Visual Literacy'
Illustrations in Japanese language textbooks will be observed in this report in order to see what kind of 'gender expressions' or gender elements and how they are used in Japanese language education. We have not had enough analyses of Japanese language textbooks from the standpoint of gender studies. This report researches 30 textbook and focuses upon their illustrations (visual elements) to analyse from the perspective of 'Visual Literacy' which has been adopted in English language education in recent years. Such observation and analysis of visual examples could make some suggestion and proposal about how we should use 'gender expressions' or gender elements in Japanese language education.
II. Paper Presentations
Mimicing Or Creating? Young Japanese Women's Diverse Use of Language during Meiji and Taisho Periods
Abstract: The goal of this paper is twofold. First, by comparing the letters in the readers’ correspondence column of three women’s magazines: Jogaku Sekai ‘The World of Women’s Education,’ Fujin Sekai ‘The World of Women,’ and Reijokai ‘The World of Ladies’ from the late Meiji to the late Taisho periods, I demonstrate that not all young Japanese women conformed to the normative linguistic forms and femininity as instructed by conduct and textbooks, school education, and home “femininity training;” rather they showed diverse linguistic and social behaviors, constructing virtual sisterhood relationships through correspondence. Second, I introduce diverse relationships between readers and editors, showing how editors and readers in each magazine constructed either vertical relationships, or created virtual brother-sister relationships. Although these relationships were the result of the magazine editors’ sales tactics for increasing the number of readers, readers’ column in women’s magazines provided young women with the space to display their desired images by creating new expressions, or mimicking normative or non-normative linguistic forms, rather than the “subject of confession” (Inoue 2006: 122).
Taking advantage of critical pedagogy in teaching and learning Japanese language and culture as well as recent studies in sociolinguistics, findings of this paper show the use of language by Japanese young women is not and was not monolithic but it is more diverse.
HTrivialization, generalization, and semanticization in the representation of “comfort women” issues
Abstract: Using the theoretical framework of critical discourse analysis, this presentation explores competing ideologies in a recent discussion concerning the notoriously contested term “comfort women” between Shinzo Abe, the Prime Minister and a member of the Liberal Democratic Party, and Toshio Ogawa, a member of the Democratic Party in the Japanese National Diet. The exchange centers on a public statement by Kono in 1993 in which he recognized that “comfort women” had been coerced into sexual slavery. Close examination of the interaction reveals that linguistic strategies such as trivialization, generalization, and semantic shift were employed in an attempt to 1) legitimate a certain testimony and at the same time falsify others and 2) negotiate the meaning of the term ‘coerciveness’ from the original Kono statement. These linguistic strategies are a part of the larger discourses that construct the specific meaning of WWII and the representations of historical events are, in fact, renditions of some of the repeated formulations of the past events by ‘revisionists’ (Barnard 2003) such as Association for Advancement of Unbiased View of History and Japanese Society for History Textbook Reforms, and Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact. The collective effect of these processes is a construction of a Japanese World War II history in which Japan is not liable for an issue some claim to be an atrocity.
Gendered and un-gendered speech styles by male and female characters in Japanese translation of Gone with the Wind
Abstract: In her study of Japanese women's language (JWL) and translation, Miyako Inoue (2003) investigates the Japanese translation of the novel Gone with the Wind and argues that JWL is an ideological construct associated with a certain group of women; e.g., southern-aristocrat Caucasian women. This study supports Inoue's claim with a quantitative linguistics analysis based on spoken discourse derived from a movie version of Gone with the Wind. The data show that hyper-gendered forms in translation of the movie are also aimed to index individual traits beyond class or race distinctions. That is, Japanese gender ideology was imposed on the characters by manipulating use of hyper-gendered speech styles.
A Study of Address Terms in Japanese Translations of the Bible
Abstract: Japanese address terms have been a popular topic among sociolinguists. Likewise, the translation of foreignisms into Japanese has also continued to be an area of scholarly interest. Given the extensive research on Japanese address terms and the widespread research on Japanese translation, one would think that a synthesis of the two research areas would provide fruitful discussion in the area of language and contact. That is to say, this study focuses on the analysis of address terms in Japanese translations of the Bible; namely those referential terms which exemplify instances of translationese （翻訳調）or unnatural language in translation.
OL （also BG, Shokugyoo Fujin）
Abstract: Office Ladies "OL", a Japanese appropriation of English words, stands for office lady. Its dictionary entry in the Shin Meikai Kokogo Jiten (4th edition) defines the term as meaning "female clerical workers", while the Katakanago Tsukaiwake Jiten offers "women working in clerical positions". The common elements in both definitions are women and clerical. But women's work has diversified, and as the number of OL who aren't necessarily in clerical jobs increases the boundaries of their job description become harder to define. OL has become established within the Japanese lexicon, yet its history is quite short. It was first used in 1963, the year before the Tokyo Olympics, when the women's magazine Josei Jishin (Kobunsha Publications) publicly called for sug¬gestions for an appropriate term.
The position of OL, which is neither a career nor even a type of job, will cease to be the tag of "clerical position for young, unmarried women of no particular training" born of Japan' s rapid industrial expansion.
Hawaii scholars, teachers, and students; Mari Hara (English department faculty, writer), Hiromi Peterson (Punaho faculty), Alice Chai (former UH faculty), ……